Subjunctive Dalam Bahasa Inggris

Subjunctive atau biasa disebut subjunctive mood adalah sebuah bentuk mood dalam kata kerja yang digunakan pada klausa terikat (dependent clause) untuk menyatakan berbagai keadaan yang tidak ril, meragukan, atau tidak faktual, seperti harapan, emosi, kemungkinan, permintaan, usulan, pengandaian, etc. Jadi sebuah kata kerja (verb) memiliki mood subjunctive ketika kata kerja tersebut menyatakan sebuah kondisi tidak ril.

Struktur subjunctive

Struktur subjunctive sangat sederhana. Untuk semua kata kerja kecuali bentuk past dari be, verb subjunctive sama dengan verb dasarnya.

Past: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they => WERE (tidak ada WAS)
Present: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they => BE (bukan lagi AM, IS, ARE)

Semua kata kerja selain BE tidak mengalami perubahan baik untuk past maupun present. Contohnya untuk kata kerja WORK.
Past: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they => WORK (tidak ada penambahan -ed)
Present: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they => WORK (tidak ada penambahan -s)

Perhatikan bahwa pada struktur di atas verb subjunctive bentuknya selalu sama baik kalimatnya past atau present. Perhatikan contoh berikut:

– Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation.
– Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation.

– Present: It is essential that she be present.
– Past: It was essential that she be present.

Kata kerja yang diikuti oleh subjunctive

advise (that)
ask (that)
command (that)
demand (that)
desire (that)
insist (that)
propose (that)
recommend (that)
request (that)
suggest (that)
urge (that)

Jadi setelah kata-kata kerja di atas, digunakan subjunctive pada dependent clausenya sehingga tidak ada perubahan kata kerja pada dependent clause. Contoh:

– Dr. Adnan asked that Mark submit his proposal before the end of the month.
– Diana requested Frank come to the meeting.
– The teacher insists that her students be on time.

Ungkapan yang diikuti oleh subjunctive

It is best (that)
It is crucial (that)
It is desirable (that)
It is essential (that)
It is imperative (that)
It is important (that)
It is recommended (that)
It is urgent (that)
It is vital (that)
It is a good idea (that)
It is a bad idea (that)

Jadi setelah ungkapan-ungkapan di atas digunakan subjunctive pada dependent clausenya sehingga tidak ada perubahan kata kerja pada dependent clause. Contoh:

– It is crucial that you be there before Jack arrives.
– It is important he attend the meeting.
– It is recommended that she take a gallon of water with him if he wants to hike to the bottom of the Latimojong.

Kita biasanya menggunakan subjunctive WERE ketimbang WAS setelah IF (dan kata serupa lainnya, as if, wish, suppose). Perhatikan kalimat berikut:

– If I were you, I would ask her.
– Suppose she were here. What would you say?
– I wish he were able to type faster.

Bentuk negatif, kontinyu, dan pasif dari Subjunctive

Contoh negatif:
– The boss insisted that Jane not be at the meeting.
– The company asked that employees not accept personal calls during business hours.

Contoh pasif:
– Jacky recommended that Susan be hired immediately.
– Vichelle demanded that you be allowed to take part in the negotiations.

Contoh bentuk progresif:
– It is important that we be standing there when she gets off the plane.
– It is crucial that a vehicle be waiting for the boss when the meeting is over

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